What is Coronary Artery Disease ? What Causes Coranary Artery Disease ? What is Treatment CAD ?

1.What is Coronary Artery Disease ?

2.What Causes Coranary Artery Disease ?

3.What Are the Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease ?

4.How Is Coronary Artery Disease Treated ?



Coronary Artery Disease


The heart is the organ responsible for providing blood circulation support to the whole body in terms of its physiological function. In this respect, it ensures that blood reaches the blood vessels in sufficient quantity and pressure, reaching all tissues, including their own tissues, during the pulse and relaxation periods. During the heart's pumping of blood to the aorta, which is the main artery of the body, the coronary arteries, located on the right and left of the heart, take charge to provide blood circulation to its own heart muscle and other tissues.


Coronary artery disease is a condition in which the heart muscle tissue cannot fulfill its function and suffer tissue damage due to occlusion of the coronary arteries for various reasons or problems in the circulation of the heart tissues through these vessels. In this regard, depending on the degree of insufficiency in the heart circulation, different severity and clinical presentations may occur. The common name of all these disease tables is coronary artery disease.


In line with this explanation, the clinical pictures evaluated within the scope of coronary artery disease can be summarized as follows:


Stable Angina pectoris; It is the general name given to the clinical picture that occurs in the development of cardiac origin (cardiac) chest pain. stable angina pectoris; The clinical symptoms originating from the heart are of short duration, not longer than 5 minutes, regress in a short time with rest and can be controlled with drugs.


Unstable (unstable) angina pectoris: Unstable angina pectoris is mentioned when the clinical symptoms can last longer between 5 and 30 minutes, there are symptoms such as more severe chest pain, and it is difficult to control the symptoms with rest or medication.


Myocardial infarction: Myocardial infarction is mentioned when the symptoms of chest pain in angina type last longer than 30 minutes and tissue damage occurs in the heart tissues due to circulatory failure. myocardium; while the name given to the heart muscle tissue; Infarction is called the death of cells in the tissue due to the insufficiency of the oxygen support provided with the blood circulation. In this sense, heart muscle cells begin to die due to insufficient circulation. The clinical picture, known as "heart attack" among the people, can be observed as angina pectoris due to damage to the heart tissue, or it can occur as a myocardial infarction.


Sudden cardiac death: It is a condition that results in the death of cardiac tissues due to the complete cessation of cardiac functions as a result of various mechanisms triggered by the insufficiency of the cardiac circulation.


What Causes Coronary Artery Disease ?


Damage to the walls of the coronary arteries begins to develop in patients with factors such as malnutrition, sedentary lifestyle, and high cholesterol. Under the influence of these new conditions in the interior of the coronary arteries, formations called atherosclerotic plaques, popularly known as arteriosclerosis, develop. The plaques grow into the vessels over time and significantly limit blood circulation.


In some conditions, the plaque may rupture due to the pressure and tension created by the blood circulation on the plaque, and intravascular coagulation may be stretched by triggering the coagulation process in the vessel wall. This leads to clot plugging, which can result in complete occlusion of the vessel.


The clinical picture in coronary artery diseases is mainly determined by the degree of occlusion in the coronary arteries and the rate at which the heart tissues are affected by circulatory failure. Accordingly, while the process leading to atherosclerotic plaque results in a relatively manageable clinic such as angina pectoris; The process that starts with the rupture of the plaque and continues with coagulation can cause life-threatening coronary artery disease with myocardial infarction.



In this regard, the following factors that trigger the development of atherosclerotic plaque in coronary vessels are considered risk factors for coronary artery disease:


High blood pressure (hypertension): In cases where blood pressure is higher than normal, the vessel wall may be damaged due to the application of more pressure to the coronary vessel wall.


High blood cholesterol: Plaque development is facilitated, especially in patients with high total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol values ​​and high blood triglyceride levels.


Smoking and alcohol use: Smoking and alcohol components directly threaten vascular health.


Diabetes disease or uncontrolled high blood sugar: Along with high blood sugar, the level of cholesterol in the blood may increase, and the vessel wall is damaged more easily.


Obesity: In cases where body weight increases in an unhealthy way, plaque development accelerates.


Sedentary (sedentary) lifestyle or not exercising: Exercise controls blood cholesterol level and supports heart health. On the contrary, a sedentary lifestyle threatens heart health.


Wrong and unbalanced eating habits: Especially ready-made food, high carbohydrate and saturated fat diet habits increase arteriosclerosis.


Obstructive sleep apnea: Heart health is adversely affected in patients who have frequent and severe apnea attacks during sleep.


Intense stress: Plaque development on the vessel wall is facilitated in people who experience daily intense stress psychologically.


Advanced age: Plaque formation is more common in the vessel wall, especially in people aged 50 and over. In addition, as the need for circulation of heart tissues increases with age, the susceptibility to coronary artery diseases increases.


What Are the Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease ?


With the development of circulatory failure in the heart tissues, various heart-related (cardiac) symptoms may occur. In this context, the following symptoms may appear in the course of coronary artery diseases:


Compressing in the chest area; Cardiac chest pain that may radiate to the jaw, neck, stomach, left shoulder, or left arm, relieved by rest, aggravated by activity


-Palpitation


-Shortness of breath


-Nausea-vomiting


-Blurring of consciousness, weakness – fatigue and fear of death


-Sweating


-Fainting (syncope)


How Is Coronary Artery Disease Treated ?


A patient with suspected coronary artery disease should first be evaluated by a specialist physician and diagnosed with the disease. In this regard, the physician questions the history of the disease in detail and detects the signs of the disease by performing a detailed physical examination.


In coronary artery diseases, methods such as electrocardiography (ECG), in which the electrical activity of the heart is measured, and echocardiography (ECO), in which its imaging is performed, are widely used. In order to detect clinical manifestations such as angina pectoris, special tests called stress testing, based on ECG recording during physical activity, may be required.


The main purpose of treatment in coronary artery diseases is to control the symptoms of the disease and prevent the development of serious heart attack attacks by eliminating the life-threatening condition of the patient at the time of heart attack. In this context, interventional treatment methods such as angiography may be required to be applied to patients in an emergency.


Angiography is to observe the structure of the heart vessels by entering the vascular structures of the body through the use of various dyeing substances and to eliminate the factors causing circulatory failure by methods such as stent. In more severe cases, surgical methods such as by-pass surgery may be required.


In addition, blood thinners such as aspirin, beta-blockers, antihypertensives, nitrate-derived vasodilators and cholesterol-lowering drugs are definitely included in the treatment of coronary artery patients. Various lifestyle changes are often recommended in addition to drug therapy. In this context, the following measures are very useful in terms of protecting and improving the health of patients:


-Stopping smoking and alcohol consumption

-Regular exercise

-Acquiring adequate and balanced nutrition habits

-Reaching the ideal weight suitable for body characteristics

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