What is eczema ?
It is characterized by the formation of dry and itchy blisters on the skin surface. These bubbles, which dry and flake, may crack over time and become open to the entry of microorganisms. For this reason, infection is frequently seen in individuals with eczema. Although the disease usually appears in early childhood, it can be seen at any age. It is usually observed in areas such as the face, scalp, legs, elbows, back of the knees and hips, and in most patients in the hand region. Disease; Depending on the type, it can be caused by stress, allergies, irritation or circulation problems. Allergy-induced eczema disease may occur in individuals in association with different immunological diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma.
What are the symptoms of eczema ?
Eczema disease, which is very common among the people and can occur due to various reasons, generally shows the same symptoms in all sick individuals. Some of these symptoms can be listed as follows;
-Skin flaking, crusting and rash
-Dandruff on the scalp
What causes eczema ?
The cause of eczema varies according to the type of the disease. The disease usually occurs as a response of the skin to a stimulus. This stimulus can be internal or external. Chemicals such as detergent, soap, perfume, rubber shoes and slippers, and some metals can cause eczema in individuals. Contact with plant and animal species, exposure to the sun and some oral medications can also cause eczema in people with sensitivities. In these people, the disease may occur immediately after contact with the stimulus, or it may manifest itself after a certain period of exposure to the stimulant substance. Allergic eczema may also be associated with the consumption of certain types of food. Apart from these, stress and circulation problems are among the known causes of eczema.
What are the types of eczema disease ?
Eczema disease is divided into the following types according to the cause of occurrence:
Hand Eczema: It is a type of eczema seen in the hand region, which occurs as a result of the contact of weak stimulant substances with the hand. It is often seen in people dealing with cleaning, housewives, and individuals dealing with professions such as hairdressing and metalworking, which come into contact with chemical substances.
Atopic Eczema: It is seen due to allergic predisposition and environmental factors and appears from infancy. Although the disease tends to get better over time, it has a recurrent feature.
Seborrheic Eczema: Although it is a type of eczema of unknown cause, it occurs in areas where the skin is oily and causes redness, scaling and crusting. It increases in winter and spring.
Contact Eczema: It occurs due to constant contact with irritating substances and chemicals that do not allow the formation of the skin's protective oil layer. It can be acute or chronic.
Nummular Eczema: It is most common on the hands, arms and legs. It causes itchy circular lesions and is a chronic type of eczema that usually appears in adulthood.
Asteatotic Eczema: It occurs due to the reduction of the oil layer on the skin surface. It occurs due to reasons such as frequent bathing and drying of the skin due to old age.
Stress Eczema: It is a type of psychological eczema that occurs due to stress.
How is eczema diagnosed ?
The diagnosis of eczema is usually made by clinical examination. It is very important to take a detailed history of the patient, who is examined by an allergy (immunology) specialist and dermatologist. The periods when the disease is alleviated or exacerbated and the symptoms it causes in the individual are learned in detail. As a result of physical examination, the diagnosis of the disease can be made as a result of examining the red and itchy areas on the body, and considering factors such as genetic predisposition. In addition, allergy tests can also be used in the diagnosis of the disease.
What are the eczema treatment methods ?
Eczema is a chronic disease and there is no known cure. Treatments applied to patients are generally aimed at preventing or reducing the severity of the symptoms caused by eczema in the individual. The basic principle of treatment in eczema types that occur in response to any stimulus is to prevent contact with the stimulus or to reduce the frequency of contact. In the treatment of the disease, anti-allergic drugs, drugs containing corticosteroids, and moisturizers are generally used in line with the recommendations of the physician. Creams and gels can be used to prevent itching. In order to prevent dryness on the skin, plenty of water should be consumed and the skin should be constantly moisturized. During the treatment process, it is very important not to scratch the skin and not to burst the bubbles. If you also have eczema, you can prevent the problems caused by the disease and increase your quality of life by paying attention to the above-mentioned issues and having regular health checks.