What is Epilepsy ? Types of Epilepsy Seizures , Causes of Epilepsy , Treatment Methods

Updated: Nov 8, 2021

What is Epilepsy ?

Epilepsy, also known as epilepsy among the people, occurs when cells in one part of the brain send an abnormal electrical signal. It is known that approximately 1% of the population of our country has epilepsy.

Sara (Epilepsy) is a chronic disease. It develops in people who experience brain damage during or after birth for any reason.

In its most known form, it manifests itself with epileptic seizures. Epileptic seizures occur suddenly and spread to the whole or a specific part of the brain. Seizure types vary depending on which part of the brain it begins. While there may be loss of consciousness and uncontrolled body movements in some epileptic seizures, in some seizures the symptoms are felt indistinct.


1.What is Epilepsy ?

2.Types of Epilepsy Seizures

3.Causes of Epilepsy

4.What Are the Symptoms of Epilepsy ?

5.What are the Diagnostic Methods of Epilepsy ?

6.Treatment Methods

Most seizures last between 30 seconds and 2 minutes. If a seizure lasts longer than five minutes, seek immediate medical attention.

Some epileptic seizures; It can also manifest as lethargy, clumsy behavior, strange tastes and smells, impaired sense of time and space, little speech, and very slow movement. Often, patients are only partially aware of the seizure occurring.

To be diagnosed with epilepsy, the person must have had at least two seizures. Brain traumas, tumors, etc. Conditions that will cause damage to the brain can cause this disease. Genetic factors also play a role in the disease.

What is Epilepsy ? Types of Epilepsy Seizures , Causes of Epilepsy , Treatment Methods

What to do during epileptic seizures ? It is wrong to place a hard object in the mouth of an epileptic person to prevent them from biting their tongue. The hard object may break the patient's teeth or block his throat, preventing him from breathing.

Therefore, the patient should be laid on his side during an epileptic seizure. In this way, if there is saliva or vomiting during the seizure, the patient's throat is prevented. In order not to hit his head, a pillow/support should be placed under him, harmful objects around him should be removed and his glasses should be removed. In addition, the person should be allowed to breathe comfortably by leaving the environment empty.

Types of Epilepsy Seizures

Simple Partial Seizure

In simple partial seizures, consciousness is clear. There are three types:

Seizures originating from the temporal lobe; Sudden fear is manifested by feeling as if something happened before or as if something has not happened, smelling bad smells and tastes, and an unpleasant internal feeling.

In seizures originating from the frontal lobe, problems with movement are seen.

In seizures originating from the parietal lobe, temporary drowsiness symptoms are observed, while in seizures originating from the occipital lobe, flashing lights affecting half of the visual field and symptoms of seeing different colors are observed.

Complex Partial Seizure

In complex partial seizures, consciousness is affected. In complex partial seizures, chewing, licking, swallowing and looking confused may be seen. Sometimes the patient may tug on their clothes and walk around. When he wakes up minutes or even hours later, he may not remember anything.

Generalized Seizure

Generalized seizures spread to the entire brain. It is the seizure known as the epileptic seizure among the people. The person first becomes rigid and falls to the ground. After this, contractions and relaxations occur in all body muscles. Violent movements during the seizure develop out of the person's control. In addition, in some generalized seizures called absences or "petit mal", the person may lose consciousness even though the body does not lose its shape.

Causes of Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a condition that can have many causes and can occur at any age. It usually starts in childhood. Any disease that affects the brain can cause epileptic seizures.

-Infections in the womb

-Deprivation of oxygen during birth

-Head trauma

-Genetic and metabolic diseases


-Developmental brain malformations

-Brain infections such as meningitis can lead to epilepsy.

What Are the Symptoms of Epilepsy ?

Since epilepsy is a dysfunction of the brain, symptoms may differ depending on the function of the affected area of ​​the brain. Some symptoms are:

-Sudden contractions in the body

-Uncontrollable shaking in the arms and legs

-Loss of consciousness

-Rapid nodding motion

-Inability to respond to sounds or speech for a short time

-Looking at a fixed poin

-Fast blink

-Psychological symptoms such as fear, anxiety, or déjà vu

Pre-Seizure Symptoms: Auras

If the seizure starts in a small area of ​​the brain, the person may experience some symptoms at the onset of the seizure. This is called "aura". These symptoms indicate which area of ​​the brain is associated with abnormal electrical activity.


-Change in vision or hearing

-Unpleasant odors

-Nausea or feeling of pressure in the stomach

-Sudden feeling of fear

What are the Diagnostic Methods of Epilepsy ?

In some epilepsy patients, there may be some conditions that trigger seizures. For example, long-term hunger, insomnia, extreme fatigue, discontinuation or change of medications without the permission of the doctor, hormonal changes can cause seizures.

The frequency of seizures in epilepsy, how long they last, and at what age they start give important clues to the doctor. For this reason, your doctor will take your detailed medical history and perform a physical examination.

EEG is a device that measures the electrical activity of the brain; It helps to diagnose epilepsy and to determine from which part of the brain the uncontrolled electrical discharges start. MRI and Computed Tomography examinations, which show whether there is a structural problem in the brain that may cause seizures, are the methods used in epilepsy.

Treatment Methods

Most people with epilepsy can be treated with epilepsy drugs called anti-epileptics. Medications are intended to stop seizures. Therefore, regular use of drugs is important. Although drug therapy is effective in the majority of patients, it may not provide the expected effect in some patients. In these patients, surgical treatments can be applied according to the underlying condition causing epilepsy.

There are two types of epilepsy surgical methods. The first is the removal of the epileptic focus itself (resective surgery).

The second is the surgical method (functional surgery, palliative surgery) aimed at reducing the spread, frequency and severity of seizures by cutting the ways of seizure spread.

In some suitable patients, a treatment called “vagus nerve stimulator” can be applied. The battery placed under the chest stimulates the vagus nerve at certain intervals and can reduce these seizures. Significant improvement can be achieved in patients with this treatment method.

Another treatment option is the ketogenic diet. This diet, which is effective in some types of epilepsy, is based on the principle of eating very rich in fat.

Uncontrolled seizures and their effects on your life can be overwhelming at times or lead to depression. Also, make healthy lifestyle choices such as managing stress, limiting alcoholic beverages, and avoiding smoking.

-Take your medication correctly.

-Getting enough sleep is also important. Lack of sleep can trigger a seizure.

-Exercise can help you stay physically healthy and reduce depression.

-Avoid excessive alcohol consumption

-Avoid nicotine use

A patient with an epileptic seizure should be prevented from being injured by hitting something while falling. The patient should be laid on his side, if possible, the head should be supported with a soft cloth or pillow to prevent him from hitting the ground. If the collar of the person is tight, it should be loosened and a space should be created where he can breathe. Actions such as trying to get the person to drink water or wetting the face should be avoided.

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