Fibroids are abnormal tissue that occurs in the uterus during childbearing. Fibroids, which are among the most common gynecological diseases, originate from the muscle layer of the uterus. Fibroids, which can also be defined as benign or, in other words, benign tumors, can turn into cancer in very rare cases.
What is myoma ?
Fibroids are most common in women between the ages of 30 and 40. It is not possible to prevent these formations, which are also known as fibroids or leiomyomas in the medical language. Tissues that are not fully understood are thought to be largely caused by hormonal changes. In other words, the hormone estrogen is thought to accelerate fibroid growth.
Fibroids, which mostly do not cause symptoms in the person, may cause symptoms such as change in menstrual pattern, abdominal pain, bloating sensation and bleeding after sexual intercourse in some cases. Fibroids, which usually occur between 1 and 15 cm in size, are pink in color and round in shape. Fibroids that can form in the uterus and cervix are mostly classified according to their location.
Does Myoma Become Cancerous ?
Fibroids, defined as benign tumors or tumors formed in the uterus, are tissues with a very low risk of turning into cancer. Fibroids, which exist in one of every 4 women, arise from the smooth muscle tissue in the uterus. The number of women with fibroids during puberty is extremely low.
Fibroids, which usually occur between the ages of 30 and 40, tend to shrink with the menopause period. However, fibroids that continue to grow in the postmenopausal period should be followed up regularly to make sure they do not turn into malignant tumors.
Fibroids can be of different sizes. Some fibroids may be too small to be seen with the naked eye, while others may be large enough to enlarge the uterus. In rare cases, fibroids can grow excessively and extend up to the person's rib cage. Fibroids, which can occur at any time in the life of many women, often go unnoticed. In cases where it does not cause symptoms, the person can live with fibroids for life. Fibroids that tend to grow, grow excessively, or cause symptoms can even lead to infertility.
What Are the Types of Fibroids ?
Fibroid types are classified under different names according to the region where the fibroids are located. Types of fibroids can be listed as follows:
Intramural Fibroids: Intramural fibroids, the most common type of fibroid, occur in the muscle tissue of the uterus. It can expand and stretch the uterus.
Subserous Fibroids: Subserous fibroids that develop on the outside of the uterus can make one side of a person's abdomen appear more bloated.
Submucous Myoma: It develops in the middle layer of the muscle tissue of the uterus, or in other words, in the myometrium. Submucous fibroids are rare.
Stem Fibroids: The fibroids in this product are connected to the uterus by a thin stem. Stem fibroids can turn around over time and cause pain. In cases that protrude beyond the uterus, pedunculated fibroids must be surgically removed.
What are the Symptoms of Myoma ?
Fibroids are usually benign tumors that do not cause symptoms. Many women can live a lifetime of health without realizing they have fibroids. In cases with symptoms, the severity of the symptoms; fibroids vary in number, size, and location. Some of the frequently encountered symptoms in the presence of fibroids can be listed as follows:
-Increase in the amount of menstruation,
-Menstrual bleeding that lasts longer than normal,
-Shortening of the time between two menstrual periods,
-Feeling of pressure in the abdomen,
-Pain in the anus during defecation,
-The need to urinate frequently
-Inability to empty the bladder completely
-Pain during sexual intercourse
-Bleeding after sexual intercourse,
-Miscarriage of pregnancy,
What Causes Myoma ?
Although the exact cause of fibroids is not yet understood, it is thought to arise from stem cells located in the muscle tissue of the uterus. Many cells that arise from the uncontrolled division and proliferation of a single cell form a different structure from the neighboring tissue. Fibroids that can grow slowly or rapidly can sometimes stay the same size. While some develop as growth spurts, some may disappear spontaneously. The factors thought to play a role in the formation of fibroids can be listed as follows:
Hormonal Changes: Estrogen, also known as the female hormone among the people, is thought to play a role in the development of uterine fibroids. Estrogen, which increases and decreases from time to time during the menstrual cycle, can accelerate the growth of existing fibroids. The fact that fibroids tend to shrink during menopause is also explained by the same reason.
Genetic Predisposition: Having fibroids in the person's family increases the likelihood of developing fibroids in the person himself.
Pregnancy: The production of estrogen and progesterone hormones increases during pregnancy. This is why fibroids may tend to grow during pregnancy. Some of the fibroids that are present during pregnancy may shrink spontaneously or completely disappear after delivery.
Race: Black women have a higher incidence of uterine fibroids. Black people have fibroids at an earlier age and are larger in size.
Environmental Factors: Factors such as use of birth control pills, younger age at menarche (first menstruation), obesity (excessive obesity), lack of vitamin D, diet rich in red meat, low consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products, and alcohol use are also factors in the formation of uterine fibroids. considered to play a role.
How Is Myoma Diagnosed ?
Vaginal examination is performed during routine health check-ups. However, depending on the fibroid, additional clinic and examinations may be reviewed for examination. With laboratory systems, system systems and thyroid system systems are searched.
At the beginning of the radiological reputation, ultrasonography takes place. Ultrasound found fibroids in the uterus. However, Magnetic Resonance (MR) information, which is not widely used to clarify the diagnosis of ultrasound, is not sold information.
One of the minor ones related to fibroids is hysterosonography. For the hysterosonography procedure, a sterile room is first expanded and sold. In some cases, hissalpingography (HSG) or hysteroscopy will be performed. Intrauterine machine from the optic port in hysteroscopy method. The resulting diagnosis is made.
How Is Myoma Treated ?
Myoma treatment can be done with many different methods. In many women, fibroids that do not cause symptoms or cause mild symptoms do not need to be treated. It is recommended to monitor such fibroids regularly. Mostly, slow-growing types of fibroids shrink spontaneously with menopause.
Myoma treatment can be done with medication. Estrogen and progesterone hormone production is inhibited by drugs defined as GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone). Thanks to this treatment, which causes the person to enter menopause temporarily, the person's menstrual bleeding is stopped and fibroids are reduced.
Another type of drug therapy is done with an intrauterine device (IUD). Thanks to the intrauterine device that secretes progestin, the severity of excessive bleeding due to myoma is alleviated. However, this method does not shrink fibroids. Apart from these, different drug treatments may be recommended to reduce the patient's complaints.
One of the treatment methods that does not require surgery is radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Radiofrequency energy is given to the fibroid by entering with a special needle inside the fibroid. In this type of treatment, which causes an increase in temperature in the fibroid, anesthesia is required.
In embolization treatment, which is one of the minimally invasive procedures, the blood flow to the small vascular structures feeding the fibroid is cut off. Non-fed fibroids shrink over time.
The surgical method used in the treatment of myoma is defined as myomectomy. Myomectomy is performed with the laparoscopic method and the uterine fibroids are surgically removed.
The only treatment method with proven efficacy in the treatment of fibroids is hysterectomy. In the hysterectomy procedure, the uterus is completely removed. After the hysterectomy procedure, which does not cause the person to enter menopause, the person cannot become pregnant.