Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
In every prenatal baby, there is an intermediate vessel between the two major arteries that come out of the heart. In the first 3 days after birth, this vessel closes on its own. PDA is when this vessel does not close and remains open after birth. The rate of patency is higher in premature babies born prematurely. However, in preterm infants, most of these can heal spontaneously or with medication within a few months.
How İs Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Diagnosed ?
In babies born on the day of birth, if the vein is not closed on time, spontaneous closure is very rare. In such patients, some of the clean blood that needs to go to the body through the open vein goes to the lungs. While this event causes an increase in pressure in the pulmonary arteries, on the other hand, the increased blood flow causes the heart to work harder and get more tired.
Children with small vessel diameters usually have no symptoms. The diagnosis is made by hearing a murmur.
If the vessel diameter is large, rapid breathing, especially during infancy, excessive sweating and fatigue, and inability to gain sufficient weight draw attention. The diagnosis is made by hearing a murmur during the examination and identifying the signs of heart failure.
Pulmonary diseases such as pneumonia and bronchitis are also common in these patients. Since in our country, children are usually only taken to the doctor when they are sick, other findings and a murmur are difficult to notice in a seriously ill and crying baby. Although some of these patients partially improve with lung infection treatments, they become sick again and again and the definitive diagnosis may therefore be delayed. Definitive diagnosis is made by examination and echocardiography performed by a pediatric cardiologist.
How is Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Treated ?
Spontaneous closure of PDA can be achieved with medication in some patients in preterm infants. The first option in the treatment of PDA cases that do not close spontaneously is to enter the inguinal veins through a catheter and close the opening with tools called “coils” or “plugs”.
In patients with a very wide opening, if it is not possible to close it with a catheter, the open vessel is ligated with a minor surgery and blood flow is prevented.
What Should Be Done İn The Future İn Patients ?
Defects that are not treated or that are closed with the catheter method require protective treatment against endocarditis (inflammation of the inner layer of the heart) before some procedures such as circumcision, tooth extraction, tooth filling, surgery during the first 6 months after the procedure.
Patients should be under the control of a doctor at regular intervals.